Jean-Pierre Christin invents Centigrade to measure temperature
The Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day (Turkish celebrate Mustafa Kemal landing at Samsun, on the north coast, in 1919 and beginning the Turkish war of independence. Atatürk was a name given to Kemal meaning Father of the Turks)
Ho Chi Minh’s birthday (Vietnam’s communist revolutionary and prime minister and president of North Vietnam during the Vietnam war)
Malcolm X Day (USA. Malcolm Little was an African-American Muslim. He joined Nation of Islam, which believed the African diaspora should return to Africa to be free of oppression, and that white people are devils. He called himself X as he couldn’t know his family’s pre-slave surname. He was a controversial figure as, unlike Martin Luther King Jr, he believed blacks were superior to whites rather than equal, and that they should use violence to further their aims. When he decided to leave was assassinated by three of its leaders.)
Verdi’s The Troubadour/Il Trovatore premiers 1853
NASA sends the New Horizons probe to Pluto 2006 – so learn about Pluto
James Watt born 1736 – I thought he invented the watt but it was named after him; he actually invented a way of making steam engines more efficient, so maybe learn about steam engines
Edgar Allan Poe born 1809 – try this video?
Cezanne born 1839
Timkat (Ethiopia) – They celebrate Epiphany as well as Jesus’s baptism. They also wrap a model of the Ark of the Covenant (the chest in which were the stone tablets with the 10 commandments on) in cloth and carry it in a procession. Learn about the Ark of the Covenant and the 10 Commandments.
National Cookie-Baking Day (US)
1606 settlers depart from England to found the first colony of the US (Virginia)
Goa Liberation Day (part of India, liberated from Portugal, 1961)
1994 National Lottery starts – so play Bingo.
Monaco National Day
The Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI, granted land to Genoa in 1191 that became Monaco.
In 1297, Francisco Grimaldi captured the fortress on the Rock of Monaco while dressed as a monk (coincidentally monaco in Italian).
He was kicked out and the Grimaldis didn’t gain Monaco until they bought it from the House of Aragon in 1419. They became vassals of the French kings in return for protection against Spain.
In 1793, French Revolutionaries captured Monaco and France owned it until 1814, when the Grimaldis were allowed to return to the throne. They almost immediately became a protectorate of Sardinia.
In 1860 the whole area became French again. The towns of Menton and Roquebrune tried to claim independence from Monaco because of too much tax; Charles III, Prince of Monaco, sold them to France (containing about 95% of Monaco’s population!) for 4 million francs.
He then set up Monte Carlo’s casino and seaside resort to recoup the losses from all that tax. This was so successful Monaco eventually abolished income tax.
In WWII Italy and then Germany invaded and its Jews were deported.
In 1956 Prince Rainier III married Grace Kelly.
Celebrate by making a tiny casino. It sounds terrible, but number recognition and maths play an important part in simple casino games like Blackjack or Bingo.
- Garifuna Settlement Day (in Belize, after being evicted from Grenadine by UK)
- Discovery of Puerto Rico Day
- Brazil Flag Day
- International Men’s Day
- Telemontecarlo, Europe’s oldest private tv channel, was launched on this day in 1954 – why not make a tv out of a cardboard box and put on your own show?
1946 Philip Pullman born
Niue Constitution Day
Oetzi the Iceman discovered
Saint Kitts and Nevis Independence Day (from UK, 1983)
St Kitts was named after St Christopher and Nevis named after Nuestra Senora de las Nueves – Our Lady of the Snows. Not that Nevis is very snowy.
They were settled by Native Americans, the Kalinago people, five thousand years ago, and Christopher Columbus arrived in 1493.
In 1538 French Huguenots arrived, and in 1636 English settlers arrived. Three years later the English and French joined forces to massacre the Kalinagos in case they did it first. In 1629 the Spanish came back and deported the lot of them.
But the Spanish Empire went into decline and the Brits and French used St Kitts as a base to take over other islands nearby. The French eventually ceded the island to the Brits in 1713. We stuck St Kitts, Nevis and Anguilla altogether as one colony, but Anguilla broke away in 1971. St Kitts and Nevis gained independence in 1983, making it the youngest sovreign state in the Americas.
International Talk Like A Pirate Day
Thimphu Drubchen (2015 – sacred masked dance in Bhutan to appease the protecting deity, Pelden Lhamo – try making a Bhutan mask. http://www.bhutangreentravel.com/CFTTHIMPHUTSHECHU.php )
1545 the Mary Rose sinks – if you’re near Portsmouth better go and visit!
1843 Brunel’s SS Great Britain launched – if you’re near Bristol better go and visit!
If not, looks like a day to make paper boats:
Degas born 1834
Nicaragua Liberation Day
Nicaragua was originally inhabited by Mesoamerican/Andean people. In 1502 Christopher Columbus discovered it and the first Spanish settlers arrived in 1524. The Spanish fought each other and the natives.
In 1821 Nicaragua became part of the First Mexican Empire; two years later that was overthrown and it became part of the United Provinces of Central America; then became independent in 1838.
Nicaragua was occupied by the US Marines in 1912-33 because it kept having civil wars. In 1927-79 Nicaragua was ruled by the Somoza family, a military hereditary dictatorship supported by the US.
In WWII Nicaragua joined our side; their efforts went basically as far as confiscating property from German-born citizens.
The Sandanistas took over in 1979 but America didn’t like them (they were a socialist party) and funded a rebel resistance movement who ran around torturing everyone and destroying all the schools and health centres the government was building. America’s support was later found to be illegal and they were ordered to repay Nicaragua for the damages.