29th September

1885 the first public tram opens in Blackpool;

1571 Caravaggio born;

Michaelmas, feast of the Archangels: traditional food on this day is the St Michael’s Bannock.

International Coffee Day – make a big coffee cart for your kid (above) or a little one for their dolls.

Inventors’ Day (Argentina)

World Heart Day – learn more about your heart here.

Ashura (2017) – on this day Shi’a Muslims grieve the martyrdom of the Prophet Mohammed’s grandson, Husayn ibn Ali, who died in battle against Yazid I, who was changing the teachings of Islam.  Sunni Muslims celebrate it as a moment that gave Islam new meaning. It is the 10th day of Muharram, which is a sacred month in which Muslims cease any fighting. In Turkey they make Ashure, Noah’s pudding, celebrating something entirely different (Noah’s landing on Mount Ararat) and confusing everybody.

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28th September

1990 Nintendo Gameboy released

Czech Statehood Day

The first recorded ‘kingdom’ of Slavs was the Samo Empire in the seventh century, which lasted only 30 years. Czechs then became part of the Moravian Empire.

In 1198 the kingdom of Bohemia was formed in the Holy Roman Empire. This is where we get the idea of ‘bohemian’ from – it was a French insult that meant ‘gypsy’, who they thought came from central Europe. Bohemia then became part of the Austrian Empire.

In 1867 the Austrian and Hungarian kingdoms joined to become the Austro-Hungarian Empire (with two kings). Hungaria owned Slovakia.

At the end of WWI the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed and the Bohemian Kingdom and Slovakia became Czechoslovakia.

In 1938 Hitler demanded control of the Sudetenland, part of Czechoslovakia. For some reason he asked Britain and France for this, rather than Czechoslovakia, and for some reason we said “Yeah sure.” A year later Hitler took the rest of Czechoslovakia. Czechs were considered Untermenschen (inferior) and were to be deported or turned into Germans. Hundreds of thousands of Jews were also killed.

Soviet troops freed Czechoslovakia, but they did take Subcarpathian Ruthenia (Czech land has the best names) for themselves on the way out. Over 2 million ethnic Germans were kicked out.

Czechoslovakia became a Communist country. In 1968 there was the Prague Spring, where they tried to be a bit liberal, but it was soon quashed because Russia invaded them.

In 1989 the Velvet (i.e., peaceful) Revolution restored democracy, and in 1992 Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

The Czech Republic is famous for beautiful Prague:

Jan Svankmajer, Sigmund Freud, Franz Kafka. It has the highest density of castles in the world, and is the most eastern part of the western world.

Manit Day (Marshall Islands cultural day).

27th September

1825 Stockton-Darlington Railway opens – here’s some train activities:

top-train-activities-for-kids-2013-from-play-trains-b

http://play-trains.com/top-train-activities-for-kids-2013/

and here’s snacks and party games!

clever-train-crafts-and-party-ideas-inspired-and-sponsored-by-thomas-friends-trackmaster-at-b-inspired-mama

http://b-inspiredmama.com/thomas-train-crafts-party/#_a5y_p=2459173

1998 Google ‘born’

 

Also today:

  • End of the War of Independence (Mexico) – see 16th September
  • French Community Holiday (Belgium) – see 1st July

25th September

1066 King Harald defeats the Norwegian Vikings in Yorkshire at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. He’s killed at Hastings three weeks later, but this is seen as the end of the Viking Age.

1903 Rothko born.

Math Storytelling Day – resources here and here. I really like the Bedtime Math page and this maths story series is so cute.

19th September

Oetzi the Iceman discovered

Saint Kitts and Nevis Independence Day (from UK, 1983)

St Kitts was named after St Christopher and Nevis named after Nuestra Senora de las Nueves – Our Lady of the Snows. Not that Nevis is very snowy.

They were settled by Native Americans, the Kalinago people, five thousand years ago, and Christopher Columbus arrived in 1493.

In 1538 French Huguenots arrived, and in 1636 English settlers arrived. Three years later the English and French joined forces to massacre the Kalinagos in case they did it first. In 1629 the Spanish came back and deported the lot of them.

But the Spanish Empire went into decline and the Brits and French used St Kitts as a base to take over other islands nearby. The French eventually ceded the island to the Brits in 1713. We stuck St Kitts, Nevis and Anguilla altogether as one colony, but Anguilla broke away in 1971. St Kitts and Nevis gained independence in 1983, making it the youngest sovreign state in the Americas.

International Talk Like A Pirate Day

18th September

1809 London’s Royal Opera House opens

1928 Juan de la Cierva makes the first autogyro crossing of the English Channel

1709 Samuel Johnson (wrote the first English dictionary) born

1819 Leon Foucault (inventor of the Foucault pendulum) born

Azerbaijan Day of National Music – see 17th November

Chile Independence Day (Dieciocho)

Native Americans moved to Chile about 10,000 years ago. They became the Mapuche people, who resisted Inca invasions.

In 1520 Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Strait of Magellan through Chile. Spain came to conquer them in 1540, but the Mapuches weren’t having it. In fact, Spain abolished slavery after realising it just made the Mapuche people angrier. However Spain eventually succeeded, and by 1778 73% of the population was European.

In 1808 Napoleon decided France had Spain now and put his brother Joseph on the throne. Not all of Spain agreed and Chile definitely didn’t and declared itself independent on 18th September 1810. Spain tried to take Chile back in the Reconquista but by 1818 Chile had won.

From 1972 they had a socialist government which increased nationalised industry and employment, but a year later inflation was out of control because they had funded the socialist changes by printing money. A military coup took over, led by General Pinochet and helped by America. Around 40,000 people were then tortured, imprisoned or killed for political reasons. Eight years later he lost his presidential role in a democratic election.

In 2010 Chile had a huge earthquake, but also made international news for rescuing 33 miners who were trapped in a shaft for 17 days.

Chile’s national animal is the condor. The national dance is the cueca. Chile is most famous for Easter Island.