13th December

Malta Republic Day

Malta has been settled since 5.200 B.C. – as soon as humans arrived, all the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants died out. Coincidence? The megalithic Ġgantija temples are among the oldest free-standing structures in the world.

220px-ggantija_temples_28129

The builders left cart tracks in the sandstone in an area now called ‘Clapham Junction’.

mtfav16

After 2,500 B.C. the humans died out again, until some Bronze Age settlers came from Sicily. Phoenicians and Romans followed.

After 332 B.C. Malta became part of the Carthaginian civilisation, based in the town Carthage in Tunisia. Rome fought with Carthage over Malta in the Punic Wars.

In 58 A.D. Paul the Apostle and Luke the Evangelist were washed up on its shores after a shipwreck.

After the fall of the Roman Empire Malta was invaded a lot, and became part of the Byzantine Empire, adding Greeks to its population.

In 870 A.D. Muslim invasions left the island ravaged and nearly empty until it was recolonised by Sicilian Muslins in 1048-9. They introduced the Siculo-Arabic language that became the Maltese language.

The Normans captured Malta and Sicily in 1091, and it became Catholic again.

It then became part of the Germanic Holy Roman Empire for 1194, but its economy and trade were ruined as it essentially just became a little island fort. Arabs and Muslims were expelled.

Malta was then ruled by the Spanish until 1409. King Charles V gave Malta to an order of Knights Hospitallier who had been kicked out of the Ottoman Empire – they became the Knights of Malta and had to pay an annual Tribute of the Maltese Falcon.

In 1551 the whole population of the island of Gozo was taken as slaves by Barbary pirates. The Maltese knights withstood an Ottoman siege in 1565 and then fortified Malta even more.

In 1798 Napoleon captured Malta on his way to take Egypt. But his soldiers raided the churches after he left, so the people rebelled and Britain sent its navy to help boot the French out. It then became a British Dominion.

In 1919 British forces fired on a crowd protesting taxes, killing four men – this is still commemorated as Sette Giugno.

During WWII Malta was very close to the Axis shipping lanes and the whole country was awarded a George Cross for bravery – which now appears on its flag.

2000px-flag_of_malta-svg

On 21 September 1964 Malta gained independence, and became a Republic on 13 December 1974.

St Lucia National Day

St Lucia Day (northern countries and Italy)

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13th July

Latvia Festival of the Sea & Fisherman (so visit the seaside, go fishing or pond dipping. If it’s an indoor day, those little magnetic fishing games are great fun, and afterwards you can use the magnetic fishing rod to go fishing for other magnetic materials in your house).

 

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http://www.kidspot.com.au/things-to-do/activities/make-a-magnetic-fishing-game

 

13th January

Orthodox New Year’s Eve

In Russia the church decided it would carry on using the Julian calendar while everyone else adopted the Gregorian calendar because being two weeks behind isn’t awkward at all.

In Serbia this is also called Little Christmas, and is celebrated a bit like Christmas.

pita1_thumb
http://miskcooks.com/2012/02/29/dan-lepards-perfect-plain-pita-bread/

In Macedonia, if you stay home, it’s traditional to eat pitta breads but one has a coin in which brings that person luck for the year.

In Gwaun Valley, Wales, it is called Hen Galan and children go round singing in return for sweets.

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http://mcuniverse.com/2010/the-silvesterchlaus-custom-in-switzerland/

And just try Googling Switzerland‘s Silvesterklaus in Schwellbrun. They’re proper crazy.

 

Uruka festival

In India the Uruka festival is celebrated in many different ways.

Bhogi is the end of the South Indian harvest festival, when people discard their old belongings or burn them in a big bonfire, and a mix of harvest fruits, flowers and money is poured over children for good luck.

Lohri is a Punjabi celebration of the winter solstice, despite being on 13 January, and everyone dances round a bonfire (try banghra or gidda) and eats sarson de saag and makki ki roti.

In Assam they celebrate Bihu, when all the men go out into the field and build a house out of hay and a great big fire. Try a bihu dance.

Maldives National Day

Togo Liberation Day (from France in 1960) so try batik with glue or with flour paste.

Korean American Day: so try Korean tacos or bulgogi burgers.

13th December

Malta Republic Day

Malta has been settled since 5.200 B.C. – as soon as humans arrived, all the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants died out. Coincidence? The megalithic Ġgantija temples are among the oldest free-standing structures in the world.

220px-ggantija_temples_28129

The builders left cart tracks in the sandstone in an area now called ‘Clapham Junction’.

mtfav16

After 2,500 B.C. the humans died out again, until some Bronze Age settlers came from Sicily. Phoenicians and Romans followed.

After 332 B.C. Malta became part of the Carthaginian civilisation, based in the town Carthage in Tunisia. Rome fought with Carthage over Malta in the Punic Wars.

In 58 A.D. Paul the Apostle and Luke the Evangelist were washed up on its shores after a shipwreck.

After the fall of the Roman Empire Malta was invaded a lot, and became part of the Byzantine Empire, adding Greeks to its population.

In 870 A.D. Muslim invasions left the island ravaged and nearly empty until it was recolonised by Sicilian Muslins in 1048-9. They introduced the Siculo-Arabic language that became the Maltese language.

The Normans captured Malta and Sicily in 1091, and it became Catholic again.

It then became part of the Germanic Holy Roman Empire for 1194, but its economy and trade were ruined as it essentially just became a little island fort. Arabs and Muslims were expelled.

Malta was then ruled by the Spanish until 1409. King Charles V gave Malta to an order of Knights Hospitallier who had been kicked out of the Ottoman Empire – they became the Knights of Malta and had to pay an annual Tribute of the Maltese Falcon.

In 1551 the whole population of the island of Gozo was taken as slaves by Barbary pirates. The Maltese knights withstood an Ottoman siege in 1565 and then fortified Malta even more.

In 1798 Napoleon captured Malta on his way to take Egypt. But his soldiers raided the churches after he left, so the people rebelled and Britain sent its navy to help boot the French out. It then became a British Dominion.

In 1919 British forces fired on a crowd protesting taxes, killing four men – this is still commemorated as Sette Giugno.

During WWII Malta was very close to the Axis shipping lanes and the whole country was awarded a George Cross for bravery – which now appears on its flag.

2000px-flag_of_malta-svg

On 21 September 1964 Malta gained independence, and became a Republic on 13 December 1974.

St Lucia National Day

St Lucia Day (northern countries and Italy)