14th August

1959 American Football League founded

Pakistan Independence Day:

Some of the earliest human civilisations in South Asia originated in Pakistan, like the Neolithic Mergarh, early farmers; and the Bronze-Age Indus Valley civilisation, which had brick multistorey houses and road drains.

The Vedic Civilsation (1500-500 BC) founded Hinduism.

The area was ruled by the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the Greek Alexander the Great, the Indian Iron-Age Mauryan Empire and the Indo-Greek Kingdom, which created the world’s first university in Taxila.

In 650-1250 AD Sufi missionaries converted a lot to Islam.

The Turko-Mongol Mughal Empire controlled Pakistan for a while but its decline allows Sikhs and then the British East India Company to take over.

In 1947 Britain said it wouldn’t rule India anymore, Some were worried that Muslims weren’t represented in Indian politics, and so Pakistan was created where the Muslim majority lived. Hindus and Sikhs promptly moved out; outsider Muslims moved in, and there was a war over whether Kashmir should be Indian or not.

Elizabeth II was still its queen until 1956, when it became a republic, and it was going alright until it had another war over Kashmir with India and a cyclone killed half a million people.

In 1970 it attempted democracy but the loser refused to hand over power, leading to civil war.

Later it had a war with India which ended up with Bangladesh becoming its own state.

Then Pakistan and India had a bit of a Cold War situation where they both kept testing nuclear bombs. Recently it has been ‘involved’ with America’s war on terror, as it had militant groups in the north-west, which is costing millions.

Also today:

  • Fete Oued Eddahab (return of the Saharan provinces to Morocco)
  • Pramuka Day (Indonesian Scouts Day)
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